I am searching the main rulebook and the Bauhaus book and I cannot find any reference to the duration of the day.
It is stated anywhere that in Venus a day is 243 (earth days) and daylight is 116 (earth days)?
Given that terraforming cannot affect the rotational or orbital speeds of the planets, assume in all cases that they're the same as you'd be able to find on wikipedia, etc, with all the resulting consequences.
So, essentially, yes, the solar day is nearly eight months long on Venus. But that doesn't actually affect the 'daily' lives of the people living there, who will still live normal lives regardless of when the sun rises and sets. It just means they'll go to work in the dark for four months, then going to sleep when it's light out for the next four months.
Of course, as a year on Venus is only 224 Earth days, it means that the solar day on Venus is actually slightly longer than a year, so it's probably easier to think of the months of sunlight as being the summer, and the months of darkness as being the winter...
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I think it's safe to assume that most people would still work to a 24 hour system, meaning that they would operate on 'day' and 'night' cycles, regardless of the actual length of the solar day. You raise a valid point however, which has highlighted a couple of places that will need tweaking. Other than that 'partying all night' and 'overnight, for example, will just generally mean those periods when Venusians are adhering to a traditional 24 hour clock.
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It's not out of the question that the ancients had the tech to change the rotation/orbit of the planets. They did drag a new moon into the orbit of Mars somehow, after all. I think the idea of a day that long is pretty cool, but if a person was bothered by the idea of the planet not turning into an oven with 200 straight days of sunshine, they could say that the terraforming was accomplished by adding spin to the planet. On the other hand, the mysterious tech that could alter the spin of a planet may just as well be mysterious tech that keeps a planet livable with 224-day long sunshine.
On a similar subject, in my game it's always night time on the Moon. The sun shines, but it shines in a black sky that illuminates the ground and the buildings and that's it. Reason? The atmosphere is only a few hundred feet thick (tops of skyscrapers poke through it according to the book), so there's certainly not enough of it to turn blue, much less have clouds or rain or anything.
I think Marc probably has the right of it. The human circadian rhythms would continue to operate on a n approximately 24 hour cycle. Regardless of whether it's light or dark outside the body would say "I'm tired, time to sleep" Thus is not an official answer, only my opinion.
To his friend a man
a friend shall prove,
To him and the friend of his friend;
But never a man
shall friendship make
With one of his foeman's friends.
When I GMed the old Apocalypse I simplified that. The first book was all day, when I needed the jungle was so deep that it was very dark. The second book was in a "perpetual sundown". And the "final" book (at least in the old) was all night.
My main concerns are for newbie GMs, because the book is written thinking in real dark night, not cycles (talk about making a camp, light problems, etc).
If someone doesnt want complication... Magic!! Terraforming included 24h spinning!!